Innovation Activity in Russia

In late 2011, Rosstat issued its Russian statistical annual, a collection of articles entitled Regions of Russia. Socio-economic Indices, which presents the basic indicators of the innovation activity in Russia.
Thus, the indicator that describes the so-called innovation output - the volume of innovative goods, work and services produced in 2010 in money terms amounted to Rb 1,243.7bn, which is one-third higher than its 2009 level. No doubt that this improvement results fr om the nearly complete recovery of the economy after the world financial crisisа. However, the share of this type of goods, work and services in the total volume of delivered products was only 4.8%, which is a rather low index by comparison with innovation-oriented developed countries. Nevertheless, in the current phase it is the behavior of the indices characterizing the functioning of all links in the innovation systems that is of greater importance for Russia. Since 2000 the share of innovative goods, work and services has been fluctuating at the level of 4.7% ± 0.3 p.p., thus demonstrating lack of any significant shifts in the development of the innovation systems. The highest values of that indicator have been achieved in the Republic of Mordovia (23.1%), Ulianovsk Oblast (17.6%) and the Republic of Tatarstan (15.6%). One fact deserves a special note: according to Rosstat' estimates, in 2010 the Republic of Chechnya produced innovative products to the value of Rb 1bn, which amounted to 13.6% of the total volume of delivered goods, work and services; while in 2009 that indicator amounted to zero.


Alongside the reported substantial growth of the indicators of innovative product deliveries in absolute terms, in 2010 Russia's expenditures on of technological innovations remained practically unchanged and amounted to Rb 400.8bn, which roughly corresponds to the 2009 level. Russia's biggest spenders on technological innovations were Tyumen Oblast (7.3% of total expenditure), Lipetsk Oblast (6.6%), and the City of Moscow (5.7%). In relative terms, the biggest growth in expenditures on technological innovations was registered in Trans-Baikal Krai (by 7.46 times), Amur Oblast (by 6.25 times), and Kaluga Oblastи (by 3.91 times). The biggest decline in that indicator was recorded in the Republic of Karachaevo-Cherkessia (- 81.7%), Sakhalin Oblast (- 73.8%), and the Republic of Mari El (-56.3%).


In absolute terms, the biggest growth in expenditures on technological innovations took place in Omsk Oblast (+ Rb 10.0bn), Krasnoyarsk Krai (+ Rb 6.6bn) and the Republic of Tatarstan (+ Rb 6.0bn). The biggest drop in the volume of expenditures on technological innovations was registered in Sakhalin Oblast (- Rb 44.0bn), Nizhny Novgorod Oblast (- Rb 5.0bn), and the Republic of Bashkortostan (- Rb 4.7bn).


Another important indicator is the level of innovation activity of organizations in Russia. It reflects the share of organizations implementing technological, organizational and marketing innovations in the fields of industrial production (extracting and processing industries, production and distribution of electrical energy, natural gas and water - in accordance with the All-Russian Classifier of Types of Economic Activity (OKVED)), communications, information and computer services, and other types of services.


The share of innovation-oriented organizations in Russia has remained approximately at the same level since 2002 - 9-10% (in 2010 - 9.5%). The highest share of innovation-oriented organizations is noted in those regions of the Russian Federation wh ere it has traditionally been on a high level: Magadan Oblast (34.3%), Perm Krai (21.3%), and Tomsk Oblast (18.4%). The highest growth indicators are recorded in Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug (+4.5 p.p.), the Jewish Autonomous Oblast (+4.3 p.p.), and Tomsk Oblast (+3.1 p.p.). The biggest drop is noted in Orel Oblast (-2.7 p.p.), Smolensk Oblast (-2.4 p.p.), Kaliningrad Oblast (-2.3 p.p.), and the Republic of Bashkortostan (-2.3 p.p.).


One more popular indicator in the sphere of innovation activity is the costs of internal research and development. In 2010, this indicator for Russia as a whole rose by 7.7% on 2009 to Rb 523.3bn, with the City of Moscow, Moscow Oblast and St. Petersburg accounting for approximately 60.9% of Russia's total costs of R&D. Another four RF subjects - Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Sverdlovsk Oblast, Samara Oblast, and Novosibirsk Oblast - accounted for about 13.2% of Russia's total. The growth of research and development costs in these seven regions ensured Russia's total growth in that sphere by 69%, or 5.3 p.p. per annum.


Thus, an analysis of four main indicators has yielded an overall picture of innovation activity development in the Russian Federation. Regretfully, once again it must be stated that there have occurred no qualitative changes to the better at the level of macroeconomic indices.

V. A. Kotsubinsky, Researcher, the Innovation Economy Department